Dr. Jason Menoutis
• Principle of Overload – increased demands are made upon the body by modifying the: Frequency Intensity Time Type
• Principle of Progression – gradual increase in exercise or activity over a period of time
• Principle of Specificity – improvements in various fitness areas require specific kinds of activity
• Principle of Regularity – perform exercise on a regular basis
• Principle of Individuality – your exercise program must be based on your individual goals and objectives
Other Training Factors:
• Plateau – performance shows no improvement for a period of time
• Rates of Response – each person has a different rate of response to his or her particular training program
• Overtraining – participating in physical activity at very high intensity levels or for unusually long periods of time
• Cross Training – combining two or more types of exercise in one workout or using different exercises alternately in successive
By following the basic principles of training you can develop a program that will lead to improved health and fitness. These principles are overload, progression and specificity. It is important to understand these principles as you develop your exercise program. You can vary the overload placed on the body during exercise by changing the frequency, intensity, time, and/or type of the workout based on the fitness component you are working to improve. Once the body adjusts or adapts to this increased overload, it becomes necessary to increase the workload again. This is the principle of progression. Improvements that occur as a result of your training should also follow the principle of specificity – they will be based on the particular fitness area that you train. The type of exercises selected also affects the results you achieve. To avoid injuries and make certain your workouts will have the benefits you are seeking, following the principles of training, warm-up before exercise, cool down after exercise, avoid overtraining and consider a cross-training program.
Two Types of Personal Fitness:
Health Related Fitness
Skill Related Fitness
Factors Determining Your Level of Fitness
Behavior or Lifestyle
Looking at health risks associated with a lack of physical activity, it is clear that Americans who are not yet regularly physically active should become active. Everyone can benefit from physical activity. The activity need not be strenuous to be beneficial – moderate activity can provide great health benefits. Maintaining personal health and fitness is a matter of individual choice. Many of the health problems we develop result from things which are under our control – things we can do something about. How we live determines to a great extent how long and how well we live. The decision to be healthy and fit is within your reach. You can establish a lifestyle which enables you to achieve your optimal fitness level.
Evaluating Your Health Related Fitness:
Health Related Fitness:
Cardiorespiratory Fitness – ability to do vigorous, large muscle exercise over a long period of time. Tests to measure: distance runs, one mile walk, Pacer test.
Muscular Strength – amount of force that can be exerted by a single contraction of the muscle.
Muscular Endurance – ability to continue using certain muscles for a period of time. Tests to measure muscular fitness: curl ups, pull ups, flexed arm hang, push ups, trunk lift.
Flexibility – ability of a join and a muscle group to move through a range of motion. Tests to measure: back saver sit and reach and shoulder stretch.
Body Composition – percent of body weight composed of fat compared to the percent that is composed of tissue, bone and muscle. Tests to measure: body fat skinfold measurement and BMI.
A number of tests are available to help you measure your level of fitness. A set of criterion-referenced health standards can be used to evaluate your test results. Reaching these standards is important, since they represent a minimum level necessary to prevent health problems in each fitness area. In establishing a plan for improvement, seek to reach the Healthy Fitness Zone in all areas rather than trying to compete with others. Strive to reach your optimal level of personal fitness. By understanding these tests and how to interpret the results, you can use them to retest yourself from time to time. Using these methods of evaluating your fitness, establish a goal of optimal personal fitness for you.
Evaluating Your Skill Related Fitness:
The Skill Related Components of Physical Fitness:
Agility – ability to start, stop and move the body quickly and in different directions.
Balance – a kind of coordination which allows you to maintain control of your body while stationary or moving.
Coordination – ability to do a task integrating movements of the body and different parts of the body.
Power – ability to combine strength and speed in a movement.
Reaction Time – time required to start a movement after being alerted to the need to move.
Speed – ability to move your total body quickly from one point to another.
Factors Determining Your Skill Related Fitness:
In order to successfully participate in sports, recreational activities and everyday activities, it is important to achieve an acceptable level of skill-related fitness. Identifying your areas of strength and weakness will enable you to establish a plan for improvement, and you will have more success and enjoyment in your sports activities. In addition, these skills will help you enjoy being active and reaching the goal of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate to intense activity on a daily basis.
Becoming a Wise Consumer
Checklist for a Wise Consumer
Before making a purchase, a wise consumer should answer these questions:
• Do I need this product or service? Or is it the advertisement which makes me
think I do?
• Will it do what I expect? How do I know that for a fact?
• Is the price reasonable? Have I at least compared the cost at one other store?
• Have I thought about this purchase? Or am I buying this on impulse?
• Is the store or company reputable?
As a consumer, it is important to your health and for your budget to make wise decisions. Although this is not always an easy responsibility, use the guidelines for avoiding rip-offs and understanding advertising claims presented in this chapter to assist you. Make certain you know the difference between facts, fads, quackery and fallacies – especially related to health and fitness. Before you invest in a product or service, review the wise consumer’s checklist.
Because of increased awareness and concern about health and fitness, there are numerous exercise and health products on the market. As a wise consumer, select only those that can truly assist in obtaining optimal fitness.
Lifetime Personal Fitness
Specific Health Problems
Know how to avoid the health problems caused by the following:
• tobacco use
• anabolic steroids
• stimulants and supplements
Wellness and Fitness Forever
Getting fit and staying fit depends on:
• self motivation
• time management
Use what you have learned in this course to help you achieve your optimal health. What is important is the quality of each day of your life. The goal is to feel the best you have ever felt in your life now, not just the distant future. It will take action and sacrifice on your part to improve your lifestyle. We can’t guarantee you will live one day longer, but we can guarantee you a healthier, happier, and more productive life. How important is health to you? Is your lifestyle worth dying for? The choice is yours!